Scientific laws are induced from observations. From these scientific laws predictions can be made by deductive reasoning. If the predictions turn out to be accurate it gives experimental proof for the validity of the scientific law. A scientific law induced from a larger set of observations usually has a larger degree of validity than a scientific law induced from a smaller set of observations. Einstein's theory of gravity is induced from a larger set of observations than Newton's law of universal gravitation. Newton's law of universal gravitation is valid in many situations to a certain precision, but Einstein's theory of gravity is valid in more situations to a greater precision. A new quantum theory of gravity might be induced from an even larger set of observations. Such a theory will have an even greater degree of validity.
In religion the premisses are just given by the holy texts. The predictions deduced from holy texts therefore don't necessarily have any degree of validity. In fact, many of the holy texts seem to directly contradict many of the modern scientific theories that are induced from large sets of observations. Such as the theory of evolution, archaeology and radiometric dating.